August 01, 2014
Uniform Code of Military Justice Logo - With Marines, Army, Air Force and Navy Emblems


 

History

On June 30, 1775, the Second Continental Congress established 69 Articles of War to govern the conduct of the Continental Army. On April 10, 1806, the United States Congress enacted 101 Articles of War (which applied to both the Army and the Navy), which were not significantly revised until over a century later. The military justice system continued to operate under the Articles of War until May 31, 1951, when the Uniform Code of Military Justice went into effect.

The UCMJ was passed by Congress on 5 May 1950, signed into law by President Harry S. Truman, and became effective on 31 May 1951. The word "Uniform" in the Code's title refers to the congressional intent to make military justice uniform or consistent among the armed services.

The UCMJ is found in Title 10, Subtitle A, Part II, Chapter 47 of the United States Code. The current version is printed in the latest version of the Manual for Courts-Martial (2005). Its subchapters are as follows:

Subchapter Title Section Article
I General Provisions 801 1
II Apprehension and Restraint 807 7
III Non-Judicial Punishment 815 15
IV Courts-Martial Jurisdiction 816 16
V Composition of Courts-Martial 822 22
VI Pre-Trial Procedure 830 30
VII Trial Procedure 836 36
VIII Sentences 855 55
IX Post-Trial Procedure and Review of Courts Martial 859 59
X Punitive Articles 877 77
XI Miscellaneous Provisions 935 135
XII Court of Military Appeals 941 141

General Provisions

Subchapter I, "General Provisions" has six sections (articles):

Section Article Title
801 1 Definitions
802 2 Persons subject to this chapter
803 3 Jurisdiction to try certain personnel
804 4 Dismissed officer's right to trial by court-martial
805 5 Territorial applicability of this chapter
806 6 Judge advocates and legal officers
806a 6a Investigation and disposition of maters pertaining to the fitness of military judges

Article 1, "definitions," defines terms used in the rest of the UCMJ: Judge Advocate General, "Navy," "Marine Corps," "Coast Guard," "officer in charge," "superior commissioned officer," "cadet," "midshipman," "military," "accuser," "military judge," "law specialist," "legal officer," "judge advocate," and "record."

Subchapter X, "Punitive Articles," is the subchapter that details offenses under the uniform code:

  • § 877, Article 77. Principals
  • § 878, Article 78. Accessory after the fact
  • § 879, Article 79. Conviction of lesser included offense.
  • § 880, Article 80. Attempts
  • § 881, Article 81. Conspiracy
  • § 882, Article 82. Solicitation
  • § 883, Article 83. Fraudulent enlistment, appointment, or separation
  • § 884, Article 84. Unlawful enlistment, appointment, or separation
  • § 885, Article 85. Desertion
  • § 886, Article 86. Absence without leave
  • § 887, Article 87. Missing movement
  • § 888, Article 88. Contempt toward officials
  • § 889, Article 89. Disrespect toward superior commissioned officer
  • § 890, Article 90. Assaulting or willfully disobeying superior commissioned officer
  • § 891, Article 91. Insubordinate conduct toward warrant officer, noncommissioned officer, or petty officer
  • § 892, Article 92. Failure to obey a lawful order or regulation
  • § 893, Article 93. Cruelty and maltreatment
  • § 894, Article 94. Mutiny or sedition
  • § 895, Article 95. Resistance, flight, breach of arrest, and escape
  • § 896, Article 96. Releasing prisoner without proper authority
  • § 897, Article 97. Unlawful detention
  • § 898, Article 98. Noncompliance with procedural rules
  • § 899, Article 99. Misbehavior before the enemy
  • § 900, Article 100. Subordinate compelling surrender
  • § 901, Article 101. Improper use of countersign
  • § 902, Article 102. Forcing a safeguard
  • § 903, Article 103. Captured or abandoned property
  • § 904, Article 104. Aiding the enemy
  • § 905, Article 105. Misconduct as prisoner
  • § 906, Article 106. Spies
  • § 906a, Article 106a. Espionage
  • § 907, Article 107. False official statements
  • § 908, Article 108. Military property of United States—Loss, damage, destruction, or wrongful disposition
  • § 909, Article 109. Property other than military property of United States—waste, spoilage, or destruction
  • § 910, Article 110. Improper hazarding of vessel
  • § 911, Article 111. Drunken or reckless operation of a vehicle, aircraft, or vessel
  • § 912, Article 112. Drunk on duty
  • § 912a, Article 112a. Wrongful use, possession, etc., of controlled substances
  • § 913, Article 113. Misbehavior of sentinel
  • § 914, Article 114. Dueling
  • § 915, Article 115. Malingering
  • § 916, Article 116. Riot or breach of peace
  • § 917, Article 117. Provoking speeches or gestures
  • § 918, Article 118. Murder
  • § 919, Article 119. Manslaughter
  • § 920, Article 120. Rape and carnal knowledge
  • § 921, Article 121. Larceny and wrongful appropriation
  • § 922, Article 122. Robbery
  • § 923, Article 123. Forgery
  • § 923a, Article 123a. Making, drawing, or uttering check, draft, or order without sufficient funds
  • § 924, Article 124. Maiming
  • § 925, Article 125. Sodomy
  • § 926, Article 126. Arson
  • § 927, Article 127. Extortion
  • § 928, Article 128. Assault
  • § 929, Article 129. Burglary
  • § 930, Article 130. Housebreaking
  • § 931, Article 131. Perjury
  • § 932, Article 132. Frauds against the United States
  • § 933, Article 133. Conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman
  • § 934, Article 134. General article. Includes offenses that are not specifically listed in the Manual for Courts-Martial and which may "cause disorder and neglect to the prejudice of good order and discipline in the armed forces, or conduct of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces." Article 134 is often considered to be a "catch-all" for various offenses that aren't necessarily covered by the other articles in the UCMJ. Article 134 offenses include disloyal statements, unclean equipment, improper wear of military uniform, abuse of public animals, adultery, bigamy, bribery, fraternization, et al.

 

 


 


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